The territory of Albania has been inhabited since ancient times. Traces of life are found in Xare, and the Cave of Saint Marina in Saranda from Paleolithic times to the middle and late (100,000 to 10,000 years ago).
Albanians are the descendants of the Illyrians. Illyrian tribes stretched in the western part of the Balkans, to the rivers Sava and Danube in the North, Morava and Vardar on the East (the border line with Thrace), and the Pindos Mountains in the South and East (the border with the Greeks and Macedonians).
Fast economic development, especially that of the metallurgy of bronze and iron (XI-V century BC) created the culture of common spiritual and material Illyrian tribes. At the end of the fifth century BC, the Illyrians entered the road of slave, and founded cities along the coast very popular at that time, which exist today, as Durrahium (Durres), Apollonia, Butroti (Butrint), of Scutari (Shkodra) , Lissus (Lezha), etc.
Roman invasion (in 168 BC) had serious consequences for the Illyrians. However, they successfully faced the assimilating policy of novels, mainly as a consequence of the high standard of development and crystallized ethnic identity.
After the break up of the novels in the year 395 AD, Illyria remained under the Byzantine Empire. In the following period, Illyria was occupied by various barbarian tribes, like Goths, Avars, etc..
We IV - VI centuries, Slavs invaded part of the Northern and Eastern Illyria and Macedonia conquered parts which were later assimilated.
The end of the first millennium marks the crystallization of the Albanian nation. Later, the Albanian political formations of the XIV century covered territories from Bar and Prizren down to Kostur and Vlora.
Meanwhile, in the southern part of the area still preserved historic name of Epirus, which in the coming years served as a synonym for Arberi (more often, National hero Skanderbeg (1405-1468) called "Prince of Epirus").
The Ottoman invasion (XIV) established the military feudal system in Arberia (Albania), but continuous uprisings of the Albanian princes prepared the glorious resistance of the Albanian people under the leadership of the National Hero Gjergj Kastrioti, known as Scanderbeg. Skanderbeg failed to create a centralized state (Arberia) and his flag became the national flag of Albania.
The XVIII century marks the flourishing of two "Patriarchies" organized and very powerful: Patriarchy, Bushatllinj (with its center in Shkoder and governed by Karamahmut Pasha Bushatlli); and Patriarchy of Ioannina (with its center in Ioannina and governed by, Ali Pasha). The struggle for independence and national identity reached its peak with Renaissance Movement, which began in 1830.
In 1878, this movement was very well organized under the League of Prizren, which served as the first military leadership and political Albanian insurgency.
But, Unfortunately, in the same year, the Congress of Berlin decided the division of the Albanian territories to the benefit of the neighboring states, Montenegro, Serbia and Greece.
However, the Albanian movement for freedom was crowned with the Proclamation of Independence, on 28 November 1912.
During the First World War, Albania became a battlefield for combating powers, and was occupied by Italy, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, France and Austria-Hungary.
In 1920, the Congress of Lushnja (a town 90 km south of Tirana), proclaimed as the capital of Albania Tirana with the consensus of representatives from all over Albania.
On January 21, 1925, the Constitutional Assembly declared Albania a Parliamentary Republic and Ahmet Zog was elected President of Albania.
But he had so much power, and the Republic functioned as a presidential republic.
On 1 September 1928, Albania was declared Democratic Parliamentary Kingdom and Ahmet Zog the King of Albania, receiving the royal title "Zog I".
On April 7, 1939, fascist Italy invaded Albania, and consequently, the so-called Constitutional Assembly declared the end of Zog's Kingdom and offered the crown to Victor Emanuel III. Albanian State formally remained a Constitutional Kingdom under the Savoy Dynasty rule.
On 29 November 1944, Albania was liberated from Nazi-fascist invaders. Since then, Albania was ruled by the communist regime of Enver Hoxha, which influenced the country's isolation.
On January 11, 1946, the Constitutional Assembly declared Albania People's Republic, as one of the forms of the proletarian dictatorship, which lasted almost half a century, until April 29, 1991, when the first pluralistic Parliament declared the Parliamentary Republic of Albania.